How To Achieve Personal Goals Using Given When Then

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At the start of a New Year, many people turn their attention to new personal goals, often referred to as New Year resolutions. We all know how these “resolutions” usually end up, forgotten and unachieved. However, there is a strategy that can lead to significant chances of meeting your goals.

One of my personal goals for 2017 is to read 24 books. The first book i’ve finished this year is Pre-Suasion: A Revolutionary Way to Influence and Persuade by Robert Cialdini.

Within the book Robert talks about “If/When Then” plans to achieve personal goals:

“If/When Then plans are designed to help us achieve a goal by readying us (1) to register certain cues in settings where we can further our goal, and (2) to take an appropriate action spurred by the cues and consistent with the goal.”

An example might be:

“If/when, i need to travel by public transport, then i will read a book.”

Whilst reading my attention was brought to the similarities of “Given – When – Then” which is typically used by software development teams to describe some desired behaviour of the product they are building.

Applying Given – When – Then in the context of goal planning might look like this:

Given i need to travel to work

When i travel by train

Then i will read a book

Scientific studies have proven this type of goal planning leads to higher likelihood of goal achievement. One study looked at the common New Year goal of increasing exercise. Half the participants were asked to plan where and when they would exercise each week (e.g., “If it is Monday, Wednesday, or Friday, then I will hit the gym for an hour before work.”) The results were dramatic: months later, 91% of if-then planners were still exercising regularly, compared to only 39% of non-planners!

How could you use this type of planning for your 2017 goals?

Here are some more examples of Given – When – Then planning for my 2017 reading goal:

(1) Given it is Wednesday

When I break for lunch

Then i will spend 20 minutes reading a book

(2) Given i’m at home

When i have some free time

Then i’ll read a book

(3) Given i’m at home

When i realise i’m aimlessly browsing the internet

Then i will read a book instead

(4) Given i ‘m currently reading a book

When i feel that its boring

Then i will stop and select another book

(5) …

You can track my 2017 reading challenge on GoodReads

Becoming a Coach

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Today my Coaching Journey took an exciting step.

I have enrolled on a course from Barefoot Coaching to become a Qualified Business and Personal Coach.

Barefoot Coaching offer a PG Cert in Business and Personal Coaching which is accredited by the University of Chester and the International Coaching Federation (ICF).

The course is broken into three modules with each module last four days. The course covers a wide range of topics, far too many for me to mention here. You can read the full course content here.

What interested you in the course?

Over the past year i’ve been doing lots of Coaching. Through my daily Coaching and Self-learning i’ve learnt what a vast and deep ocean the discipline is. At times knowing where to focus my learning has been a disorientating and frustrating experience. Barefoot Coaching offer an extensive course delivered by experts such as Kim Morgan, Julie Starr and Damian Hughes. My hope is that through the carefully crafted course content and guidance of these experts my learning will be accelerated and coaching skills enhanced.

In addition, having researched the International Coaching Federation the opportunity to become a Professional Certified Coach was certainly appealing. I know in some circles Certification has a bad reputation but with the ICF focus on certification through hands-on experience my worries were alleviated. For example, before you can become a Professional Certified Coach you need to do 750 hours of coaching from at least 25 clients.

It’s going to be a busy but exciting 2017.

Interested in doing something similar?

I’d highly recommend heading along to one of the Barefoot Coaching open mornings. I went recently and it certainly helped in my decision making process. Find out here when the next one is.

 

 

How i approach Coaching

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This year i’ve been on a journey of discovery into Coaching. My official job title is “Agile Coach” and as the title suggests a key part of the role is Coaching. This blog explores how i approach Coaching with the intention that my experience will help others interested in the topic.

What is Coaching?

This was a question that troubled me for many months. It’s not an easy question to answer. It’s something i’m still discovering but through constant reading and practice i’m much more informed than i was 12 months ago!

When someone asks me “What is Coaching?” i typically refer to this quote from the Inner Game of Tennis:

“Coaching is unlocking a persons potential to maximise their own performance.”

Timothy Gallwey

I like this quote because it really highlights that the Coaching focus is always on the Coachee.

In practical terms, Coaching is a conversation where the coach uses questioning to help the Coachee build awareness of how to tackle a goal or challenge.

In my experience the question “What is Coaching?” results in many different answers so it is important to address this question directly with the Coachee early on. This helps ensure there is a shared understanding within the relationship. I have often found that to begin with people think the process is similar to Mentoring. I’ve blogged recently the differences between Coaching and Mentoring.

Types of Coaching

Coaching conversations can happen any time. It doesn’t need to happen in a formal setting or in “official” coaching sessions. Don’t let this fool you through, Coaching is a structured practice that requires practice and continual improvement.

The types of Coaching i’ve done are:

  • One-to-One Coaching in designated “Coaching Sessions”, usually 45mins – 1hr
  • Informal Coaching, for example at the “Water Cooler”.
  • Group Coaching, usually a whole team – A common realm for an “Agile Coach”

Whilst i’m embedding more coaching into my daily interactions with people my journey really started with One-to-One Coaching sessions. These sessions provided a safe environment to learn. Let me explain further how Coaching works in these sessions.

Who?

When it comes to One-to-One Coaching sessions i generally have two types of engagement:

  1. People approach me directly asking for coaching towards a specific goal.
  2. I approach others to offer coaching. In this case i’m always clear that the offer can be refused!

When i first started, rather than advertise my coaching services publicly I wanted to get some experience and practice. I spent time discussing with others my own personal goal to develop coaching experience. Eventually i found a a handful of people who were interested in being coached. I intentionally tried to find people that worked outside of my immediate influence, so not my direct team, and also people that i felt would be receptive of coaching. For the early sessions this felt like a safe environment to learn.

How?

One of the most universally known Coaching models is “The GROW Model” and it was one of the first models i used too:

grow

The GROW Model is a simple structure for a Coaching conversation. Personally i’ve found it incredibly useful as a mental model during the conversation to help give it structure. I also share this model with the Coachee so that it gives them a picture of how the conversation will be structured.

Whilst this is a good start, there is much more to learn. In my experience although the GROW model provides a good structure and its a great place to start, the more subtle skills are much harder to master. For example:

These topics are blog posts on their own but for now i’d recommend checking out the linked resources.

Examples

Since my early coaching sessions the number of people i’ve coached has broadened considerably. One of the fascinating benefits of coaching is the opportunity to work with people on a varied set of goals. Here are some examples (provided with consent):

  • Someone who wanted to improve prioritisation
  • Someone who wanted to find an opportunity to use physics in their career
  • Someone who was seeking a Promotion
  • A Scrum Master who wanted to build trust within their team

Although these were the stated goals at the start of the coaching engagement often the Goal might become something else. For example, a Promotion is a good example of an end goal. During the coaching we may explore some related performance goals in the control of the Coachee that could contribute to the end goal.

In the above examples it’s important to be clear that the focus is to get the Coachee to a point where they are comfortable either their goal has been met or they have made enough progress that they are happy to continue their journey without the Coach. In the above examples the length of the coaching sessions ranged from 2 – 6 1hr sessions. This is in contrast to Mentoring where the relationship may last for a longer period of time.

Now Start Your Journey!

Hopefully this has provided you with some insight into what Coaching looks like. I’ve linked to lots of resources during the blog that have really helped me in particular these 5 books.

Facilitation using Ritual Dissent

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I recently read Black Box Thinking by Matthew Syed. In the book one of the topics Matthew explores is brainstorming. He talks about how an idea should be exposed to lively debate and challenge in order to refine the idea. Here is an extract from the book:

Perhaps the most graphic way to glimpse the responsive nature of creativity is to consider an experiment by Charlan Nemeth, a psychologist at the University of California, Berkeley, and her colleagues. She took 265 female undergraduates and randomly divided them into five-person teams. Each team was given the same task: to come up with ideas about how to reduce traffic congestion in the San Francisco Bay Area. These five-person teams were then assigned to one of three ways of working.

The first group were given the instruction to brainstorm. This is one of the most influential creativity techniques in history, and it is based on the mystical conception of how creativity happens: through contemplation and the free flow of ideas. In brainstorming the entire approach is to remove obstacles. It is to minimize challenges. People are warned not to criticize each other, or point out the difficulties in each other’s suggestions. Blockages are bad. Negative feedback is a sin.

The second group were given no guidelines at all: they were allowed to come up with ideas in any way they thought best.

But the third group were actively encouraged to point out the flaws in each other’s ideas. Their instructions read: “Most research and advice suggests that the best way to come up with good solutions is to come up with many solutions. Free-wheeling is welcome; don’t be afraid to say anything that comes to mind. However, in addition, most studies suggest that you should debate and even criticize each other’s ideas[my italics].”

The results were remarkable. The groups with the dissent and criticize guidelines generated 25 percent more ideas than those who were brainstorming (or who had no instructions). Just as striking, when individuals were later asked to come up with more solutions for the traffic problem, those with the dissent guidelines generated twice as many new ideas as the brainstormers.

 

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/please-more-brainstorm-sessions-how-innovation-really-matthew-syed

Today i facilitated a brainstorming session where we applied this principle using an approach called Ritual Dissent. Here is how it worked:

Context: We had 3 Groups. Each group had an idea which they felt would solve a particular problem we are facing.

  1. Each group nominates a Spokesperson
  2. Spokesperson rotates to one of the other groups which now becomes the reviewers
  3. Spokesperson presents the idea to the reviewers (~3 Minutes) (Silence from the reviewers)
  4. Spokesperson turns around and faces away (Silence from Spokesperson)
  5. Reviewers attack (dissent) or improve (assent) the ideas (~3 Minutes) (Whilst this happens the Spokesperson records the feedback)
  6. Spokesperson returns to their original group
  7. Group decide what to do with feedback (~6 Minutes)
  8. Repeat 1 – 8 until ideas suitably refined or ditched

Some feedback points from the session were:

  • “It was good to present my idea without getting interrupted.”
  • “When we were reviewing the idea it helped that the person turned around, it made it feel less personal.”
  • “We got lots of feedback on our idea.”
  • “Our ideas are in a much better position.”

You can read more about Ritual Dissent here

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Are you really Coaching?

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I recently read “Brilliant Coaching” by Julie Starr. The book explores practical ways you can apply Coaching in the workplace. She provides great examples how you can apply a Coaching style moving from Directive leadership to empowering others(Self Directed)

In the book Julie presents a model; the Scale of Influence. This can be used as a model to build self-awareness in your Coaching conversations.

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Scale of Influence: Brilliant Coaching, Julie Starr

In a Coaching conversation we may use different levels of influence but we want a good coaching conversation to be more self-directed (left of hand side of the model). In particular Julie recommends that new coaches should try to avoid giving advice or instruction at all.

I’ve recently started using this model to reflect upon the conversations I have with people around me. It has helped to identify times where I could have taken a less directive approach.

As many of my blog readers are Testers I’ve translated what the model might look like in Testing context. For example a conversation between a Tester and a Developer on deciding how to test a particular User Story.

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This is a good way to reflect upon the conversations you have with people and understand “Are you really Coaching?”

Next time you are engaging in a Coaching conversation use this model and reflect:

  • How often do you tell someone else what to do?
  • How do you feel listening to someone share an idea when you think there is a better approach? How often do you follow with an opinion rather than asking further questions?
  • When you feel you are the expert, how often do you refrain from sharing advice and ask a question instead?
  • How does silence make you feel?

5 Books about Coaching

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A common question i get asked is “What Coaching books do you recommend?”

Here is a short list of some Coaching Books i’ve read and some that are on my reading backlog.

1. Coaching for Performance: Growing People, Performance and Purpose

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What i liked?

  • This book explores the popular GROW Model
  • There are some great chapters about crafting good goals
  • Explains well what Coaching actually is
  • For many this is the go-to book about modern coaching techniques. A best seller thats been around for many years.

Recommended for: Anyone new to Coaching

 

2. The Coach’s Casebook: Mastering the Twelve Traits that Trap Us

41+I4lOgqEL._AC_UL320_SR216,320_What i liked?

  • Very practical examples of coaching conversations
  • Real Life Case Studies from high profile and famous figures
  • Easy to relate to (I often found personal examples in each of the traits)
  • Promotes Coaching Supervision which was a concept that was new to me until i read this book

Recommended for: Scrum Masters (Co-Author Geoff Watts also Authored Scrum Mastery)

 

3. Time to Think: Listening to ignite the human mind

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What i liked?

  • This book has had a dramatic impact of my coaching approach
  • It will fundamentally challenge you
  • Excellent examples and well written
  • Case Studies towards the end of the book of how to apply the Thinking Environment are very interesting.

Recommended for: People involved in organisational change

 

 

4. Coaching Habit: Say less, Ask more & Change the way you lead

Coaching-HabitWhat i liked?

  • Simple and accessible introduction to Coaching
  • Suggests some power Coaching questions such as the AWE question
  • Techniques can be applied straight away
  • Does not promote a rigid process but looks at how coaching can be built as a habit in everything you do

Recommended for: Managers

 

 

5. Art of Coaching

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What i liked?

  • Visual!
  • Covers many core coaching concepts but using visual aids
  • Provides great inspiration of how to apply visual techniques to coaching.
  • Techqniues for both individuals and the team

Recommended for: Experienced Coaches looking for new ways to engage clients

 

 

Some more books on the backlog:

XP2016 – Katherine Kirk – Herding Cats: Coaching Techs and Execs

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One of the best talks at XP2016 was from Katherine Kirk @kkirk. If you happen to be at a conference where she is speaking make sure you attend!! Katherine was one of the most engaging and entertaining speakers I’ve seen for a long time.

Insight Facilitation


In Katherine’s talk she introduced us to the concept of Insight Facilitation. Katherine talked about the importance of enabling people to figure out their own solutions in complex adaptive situations. Often “Agile Coaching” is about Process Education. This might appear to have some early success but once the big problems happen the teams are unable to adapt to the changing world around them. Through Insight Facilitation we want to empower people to handle these situations on their own.

It isn’t easy

As Coaches we can often fall into dysfunctions which can be damaging for the people within our organisations. Katherine talked about 3 common dysfunctions:

  1. Comforter“Trying to make people happy”
  2. Controller“Being the person who always knows best”
  3. Coercer “Leading the witness to your conclusions rather than their own”

These dysfunctions can lead to the following problems:

The Journey

Taking a Coaching approach can lead to interesting reactions from people. Katherine gave an example of an executive who joined a new company and during the early months people would come to his office asking for advice on how to solve problems, his response: “What do you think you need to do?” The simple act of asking this question was promoting empowerment of the individual and ownership.

This example made me think of a book I’ve been reading recently which is all about asking powerful questions; “The Coaching Habit: Say less , Ask More & Change the way you lead forever“. In particular the  book talks about the‘AWE’ question which is incredibly powerful to help explore other possibilities. AWE = And What Else?

Katherine also shared the different reactions she has seen and the journey people take through Coaching which I thought summed it nicely:

Excellent talk and great learning points about Coaching.

Thank You Katherine!


Some of my other posts from XP2016 are here: